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    文藝評論
    紀錄片應追求真實還是好看?
    文章作者:韓浩月  發布日期:2018/5/11 閱讀次數:[4772]   來源:江西日報

        近日,BBC(英國廣播公司)承認了其2011年出品的紀錄片《人類星球》存在“不準確的敘述”,但在“造假”問題上并沒有明確表態。紀錄片《人類星球》陷入“造假”風波,網友們紛紛表示“難過得哭出聲”“仿佛心中的圣殿倒塌”。

        這次BBC“造假”引發軒然大波的主要原因是,紀錄片《人類星球》第4集講述了科羅威人的叢林生活,稱“他們是世界上****居住在樹屋中的部落”,然而當地人卻對另外一部紀錄片的主持人說,樹屋“不是我們的家”,是被“委托拍攝的”,這位主持人也稱:“(樹屋)不是他們生活的地方,這完全是欺騙。” “欺騙”,成為一些觀眾對BBC出品的紀錄片《人類星球》的一個嚴厲指控。

        通過這起風波,一個有關紀錄片的老問題漸漸被人們關注,并成為討論熱點:紀錄片首要追求的是真實,還是好看?

    就紀錄片的體裁來看,客觀、真實顯然是其核心價值,然而紀錄片的性質也決定了,在創作過程中難免要融入一些藝術手段來記錄真實:即便一部紀錄片百分百的畫面為實拍,導演也一樣可以通過鏡頭、剪輯、配樂等技術手段,來呈現一個帶有某種特定主觀性的故事。

        客觀地說,過去的科羅威人如果真的曾經在樹屋上久居過,BBC通過“搭場景”“請演員”“造情節”的方式進行還原拍攝, 這么處理是有合理性的。眾所周知,歷史具有****性和********性,如飛機失事、花朵綻放、體育賽事的決賽瞬間等等,只要被拍到,這段畫面就記錄了歷史。然而,這樣的記錄是震撼的也注定是短暫的,是瞬間的也是片段的,想要了解前因后果,以及整個系統的宏觀把控,恐怕還得從大量的素材中選取有用的片段,甚至通過客觀場景真實還原當時的情況,來共同建構一個有著完整情節鏈的紀錄片。

        然而,此次BBC的失誤在于,它沒有鮮明地指出,畫面是在描述過去,相反的其鏡頭內的一切元素都指向當下的現在進行時。這些紀錄片畫面,讓觀眾相信了他們的所看:迄今為止科羅威人仍然住在樹屋上。然而,事實并非如此。

    至此,問題的癥結一目了然。紀錄片《人類星球》陷入“造假”風波,最根本的原因是作品給了觀眾實拍的印象,但實際上是擺拍的,隱瞞了拍攝過程中科羅威人在樹屋上居住的不適應性,并且全片沒有對觀眾進行提示、告知和解釋。

        的確,紀錄片是藝術品,也是文化消費產品,要有真實性,也應該追求可看性。而在大多數情況下,真實的,往往是低速的、平淡的。觀眾定然不會喜歡盯著一個攝像機監控畫面,一動不動地看幾個小時的平鋪直敘。然而,這并不意味著,紀錄片可以隨意犧牲真實性,通過虛構、造假、過度包裝等手段,“假造”事實,迎合觀眾的好奇心,欺騙觀眾的情感。

        紀錄片創作的首要態度應是誠實,誠實決定了創作者的格局,也決定了觀眾能否真正進入紀錄片。在守衛誠實的基礎上,利用自身專業優勢,適當進行技術上的創新與創造,為觀眾呈現更美麗的畫面、更動人的情節故事,當是紀錄片的成功正道。比如同屬BBC出品的《行星地球2》,里面有一段群蛇追逐圍攻一只小鬣蜥的場景,畫面利用了多機位拍攝與數字剪輯技巧,一氣呵成,生動有力且真實地為觀眾呈現了動物捕獵的精彩瞬間,這個連貫鏡頭被英國電影學院獎評為2016年“觀眾必須觀看的一個瞬間”。

        綜上所述,紀錄片的特定屬性,決定了其首要生命力在于真實客觀。即便對于那些根本無法通過實拍呈現的特殊鏡頭,而以字幕、畫面等進行“現場還原”的,依然要讓觀眾的知情權得到尊重。

       
     
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