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    文藝評論
    畫意攝影的畫意之辯
    文章作者:高峻  發布日期:2019/6/17 閱讀次數:[1021]   來源:大眾日報

        畫意攝影流派產生于19世紀80年代,在歷經“高藝術”攝影、“自然主義”攝影、“后畫意時期”三個發展階段后,于20世紀20-30年代早期分為兩派,屬于很典型的源自西方的藝術思潮。畫意攝影流派在20世紀20-30年代從西方傳入中國,一經傳入就與中國傳統繪畫審美觀相結合,成為中國攝影藝術的主要流派,涌現出一大批擅長畫意攝影的攝影師,如陳萬里、劉半農、郎靜山等。郎靜山創立的“集錦攝影”,巧妙地將西方攝影技術與中華傳統文化相結合,“東方藝術,可為攝影之助,攝影亦足證東方藝術”,形成了鮮明的中國審美特色,成為中國攝影史中的經典。近年來,隨著人們對中國傳統文化的重視以及審美追求的日益提高,畫意攝影又一次在攝影界復蘇活躍起來,成為攝影消費的主流。由中國攝影家協會和江蘇省淮安市人民政府聯合主辦,以中國攝影大師郎靜山命名的“郎靜山杯”中國新畫意攝影雙年展,迄今為止已舉辦了兩屆,旨在鼓勵攝影師們創作出更多東方視角的畫意攝影佳作。而隨著以中國傳統文化為背景的畫意攝影作品的大量涌現與廣泛傳播,人們對畫意攝影的關注也持續升溫,與此同時,面對畫意攝影呈現的不同方式,畫意攝影中“畫”和“意”哪個是創作的重點,是創作者必須厘清的關鍵問題。

        一、畫意攝影之“畫”
        畫意攝影以其唯美的繪畫風格來表達人文美與自然美的特點,一直是攝影藝術里一種重要的表現手法。畫意攝影中的“畫”是指畫面,用類似繪畫的形式來呈現攝影作品,強調畫面中影調、線條、平衡等美學元素的重要性。畫意攝影師強調通過對畫面中影調以及光線的控制,使作品呈現出類似于繪畫風格的藝術美感,主張作品的美感比題材本身更重要。畫意攝影是攝影藝術中最重要的表達方式之一,攝影師在拍攝畫意攝影作品時,通常會在前期構圖或者光線及環境氛圍的把控中加入自己的想法,為畫面中的拍攝對象增加其本身所不具備的某種意念之美,也就是用“畫”的形式來表現作品中的“意”。
        二、畫意攝影之“意”
        大多數人談及畫意時,多偏重于意的感受。畫意攝影的主要精髓在于意蘊,其本質是對意的表達。如劉半農在《半農談影》中指出,畫意,乃是把攝影師感受到的意境,借相機表露出來,體現中國古代繪畫中的“意境”美學。“畫”是表達意的載體,而“意”是畫內在韻味的體現,是攝影師的精神感悟和審美情趣。在攝影畫面當中,雖然構成元素是攝影師記錄的客觀景象,是寫實的,但是畫面內容主要來源于攝影師的主觀意象創造,它超越了鏡頭下的真實感,實現了心與物的交叉,空與實的置換,呈現出攝影師所描繪的意象世界。在畫意攝影當中“畫”的元素僅僅是其中的一部分,“意”的表達才是整個作品中具象思維過程的反映。畫面為意服務,意為畫面增加耐讀性。“意”來源于我們內心當中的創作與自由,是一個有關精神感悟與情感表達的過程。如郎靜山所說,“畫面上的結構與層次要有藝術性,作品的本身內容具有深刻的意義,要做到余意無窮。”
        三、畫意攝影重“畫”更重“意”
        在我國傳統美學觀念中,意境美****有民族價值觀和審美觀,比如中國畫就極為注重對意境的表達,“詩是無形畫,畫是無形詩”,其****境界就是體現出畫面的意境。“一幅畫就應該像一首詩、一闋歌,或者一篇美的散文”,傅抱石如是說。沒有內涵的唯美是沒有生命的、淺薄的美,畫意攝影也不能僅追求繪畫形式上的唯美,其創作精神同樣要體現在美學方面。畫意攝影更應該像一首詩、一闋歌、或者一篇美的散文,能表現出由心境衍生出的意境,也就是畫意攝影中的“意”,并且“意”主要取決于攝影師的觀看視角。攝影師在畫意攝影的創作中注入了本身的主觀意象,并賦予其不同的展示方式,追求作品當中的主觀性,抒發作品背后的意蘊。因此,畫意攝影應是用畫的方式來表現心中的意境,畫意即心意,將內心的意境表現在作品中,“意”才是整個作品的靈魂。
        目前一些從事畫意攝影創作的群體對畫意攝影存在著誤解,在他們看來,通過攝影技術將圖畫的構圖或意境原本地呈現出來就是“畫意攝影”,他們熱衷討論的創作手法實際上都是如何呈現“畫”,而不是如何體現“意”。此外,近年影樓中出現了很多國畫風格的畫意攝影作品,這些作品多數以古畫為背景,再加上一些傳統元素如古裝、器具、配飾,亦或加入中國繪畫的元素,后期再模仿工筆畫進行制作,就合成了一幅畫意攝影作品。這些作品無論選擇水墨風格還是工筆風格,都是以仿畫的形式出現,沒有脫離對“畫”的形式上的刻意追求,缺少的是作品靈魂“意”的體現。而有些攝影師則注重在創新與思考中創作出更有畫意的作品,他們利用內心世界來理解客觀對象的外形之美,通過對傳統繪畫的反思與理解,傳承繪畫中的意象特征,把自己的思維與意象融入畫面,從而營造出一種意境之美,使畫面更加耐人尋味。

        與其他藝術門類一樣,攝影藝術同樣是人類思想情感的體現,而硬件和軟件的迅速更新為創作提供愈加廣闊的空間,畫意攝影更應注重為作品賦予獨特的意蘊,建立與觀眾之間更深的感情溝通,作品不僅有“畫”更要有“意”,才能意味無窮。隨著時代的進步,傳統文化將與現代多元文化進一步交織融合,這是畫意攝影一個新的發展方向,畫意攝影的意蘊也會在現代多元文化的碰撞中得到更加充分的發展。盡管世界文化藝術琳瑯滿目,但畫意攝影終究是來自于意境的顯影,不是“拷貝畫意的復制品”,更不是“畫意的陳詞濫調”,而是一種源自中國傳統美學的主觀攝影。

       
     
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